# Lecture 10 Supplemental Notebook¶

Data 100, Fall 2020

Suraj Rampure, with updates by Fernando PÃ©rez.

In [1]:
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import seaborn as sns

sns.set_theme(style='darkgrid', font_scale = 1.5,
rc={'figure.figsize':(7,5)})

#plt.rc('figure', dpi=100, figsize=(7, 5))
#plt.rc('font', size=12)
rng = np.random.default_rng()


# Scale¶

In [2]:
ppdf = pd.DataFrame(dict(Cancer=[2007371, 935573], Abortion=[289750, 327000]),
index=pd.Series([2006, 2013],
name="Year"))
ppdf

Out[2]:
Cancer Abortion
Year
2006 2007371 289750
2013 935573 327000
In [3]:
ax = sns.lineplot(data=ppdf, markers=True)
ax.set_title("Planned Parenthood Procedures")
ax.set_xticks([2006, 2013])
ax.set_ylabel("Service count");


Let's now compute the relative change between the two years...

In [4]:
rel_change = 100*(ppdf.loc[2013] - ppdf.loc[2006])/ppdf.loc[2006]
rel_change.name = "Percent Change"
rel_change

Out[4]:
Cancer     -53.39312
Abortion    12.85591
Name: Percent Change, dtype: float64
In [5]:
ax = sns.barplot(x=rel_change.index, y=rel_change)
ax.axhline(0, color='black')
ax.set_title("Percent Change in Number of Procedures");


## Current Population Survey¶

In [6]:
cps = pd.read_csv("edInc2.csv")
cps

Out[6]:
educ gender income
0 1 Men 517
1 1 Women 409
2 2 Men 751
3 2 Women 578
4 3 Men 872
5 3 Women 661
6 4 Men 1249
7 4 Women 965
8 5 Men 1385
9 5 Women 1049
In [7]:
cps = cps.replace({'educ':{1:"<HS", 2:"HS", 3:"<BA", 4:"BA", 5:">BA"}})
cps.columns = ['Education', 'Gender', 'Income']
cps

Out[7]:
Education Gender Income
0 <HS Men 517
1 <HS Women 409
2 HS Men 751
3 HS Women 578
4 <BA Men 872
5 <BA Women 661
6 BA Men 1249
7 BA Women 965
8 >BA Men 1385
9 >BA Women 1049
In [8]:
# Let's pick our colors specifically using color_palette()
blue_red = ["#397eb7", "#bf1518"]
with sns.color_palette(sns.color_palette(blue_red)):
ax = sns.pointplot(data=cps, x = "Education", y = "Income", hue = "Gender")

ax.set_title("2014 Median Weekly Earnings\nFull-Time Workers over 25 years old");


Now, let's compute the income gap as a relative quantity between men and women. Recall that the structure of the dataframe is as follows:

In [9]:
cps.head()

Out[9]:
Education Gender Income
0 <HS Men 517
1 <HS Women 409
2 HS Men 751
3 HS Women 578
4 <BA Men 872

This calls for using groupby by Gender, so that we can separate the data for both genders, and then compute the ratio:

In [10]:
cg = cps.set_index("Education").groupby("Gender")
men = cg.get_group("Men").drop("Gender", "columns")
women = cg.get_group("Women").drop("Gender", "columns")
display(men, women)

Income
Education
<HS 517
HS 751
<BA 872
BA 1249
>BA 1385
Income
Education
<HS 409
HS 578
<BA 661
BA 965
>BA 1049
In [11]:
mfratio = men/women
mfratio.columns = ["Income Ratio (M/F)"]
mfratio

Out[11]:
Income Ratio (M/F)
Education
<HS 1.264059
HS 1.299308
<BA 1.319213
BA 1.294301
>BA 1.320305
In [12]:
ax = sns.lineplot(data=mfratio, markers=True, legend=False);
ax.set_ylabel("Ratio")
ax.set_title("M/F Income Ratio as a function of education level");


Let's now compute the alternate ratio, F/M instead:

In [13]:
fmratio = women/men
fmratio.columns = ["Income Ratio (F/M)"]
fmratio

Out[13]:
Income Ratio (F/M)
Education
<HS 0.791103
HS 0.769640
<BA 0.758028
BA 0.772618
>BA 0.757401
In [14]:
ax = sns.lineplot(data=fmratio, markers=True, legend=False);
ax.set_ylabel("Ratio")
ax.set_title("F/M Income Ratio as a function of education level");


# Overplotting¶

In [15]:
df = pd.read_csv('baby.csv')

In [16]:
plt.scatter(df['Maternal Height'], df['Birth Weight']);
plt.xlabel('Maternal Height')
plt.ylabel('Birth Weight');

In [17]:
plt.scatter(df['Maternal Height'], df['Birth Weight'], alpha = 0.4);
plt.xlabel('Maternal Height')
plt.ylabel('Birth Weight');

In [18]:
plt.scatter(data=df, x='Maternal Height', y='Birth Weight', alpha = 0.4);
plt.xlabel('Maternal Height')
plt.ylabel('Birth Weight');

In [19]:
r1, r2 = rng.normal(size=(2, len(df)))/3

plt.scatter(df['Maternal Height'] + r1, df['Birth Weight'] + r2, alpha = 0.4);
plt.xlabel('Maternal Height')
plt.ylabel('Birth Weight');


# Kernel Density Estimates¶

In [20]:
points = [2.2, 2.8, 3.7, 5.3, 5.7]

In [21]:
plt.hist(points, bins=range(0, 10, 2), ec='w', density=True);


Let's define some kernels. We will explain these formulas momentarily. We'll also define some helper functions for visualization purposes.

In [22]:
def gaussian(x, z, a):
# Gaussian kernel
return (1/np.sqrt(2*np.pi*a**2)) * np.exp((-(x - z)**2 / (2 * a**2)))

def boxcar_basic(x, z, a):
# Boxcar kernel
if np.abs(x - z) <= a/2:
return 1/a
return 0

def boxcar(x, z, a):
# Boxcar kernel
cond = np.abs(x - z)
return np.piecewise(x, [cond <= a/2, cond > a/2], [1/a, 0] )

In [23]:
def create_kde(kernel, pts, a):
# Takes in a kernel, set aof points, and alpha
# Returns the KDE as a function
def f(x):
output = 0
for pt in pts:
output += kernel(x, pt, a)
return output / len(pts) # Normalization factor
return f

def plot_kde(kernel, pts, a):
# Calls create_kde and plots the corresponding KDE
f = create_kde(kernel, pts, a)
x = np.linspace(min(pts) - 5, max(pts) + 5, 1000)
y = [f(xi) for xi in x]
plt.plot(x, y);

def plot_separate_kernels(kernel, pts, a, norm=False):
# Plots individual kernels, which are then summed to create the KDE
x = np.linspace(min(pts) - 5, max(pts) + 5, 1000)
for pt in pts:
y = kernel(x, pt, a)
if norm:
y /= len(pts)
plt.plot(x, y)

plt.show();


Here are our five points.

In [24]:
plt.xlim(-3, 10)
plt.ylim(0, 0.5)
sns.rugplot(points, height = 0.5);


### Step 1: Place a kernel at each point¶

In [25]:
plt.xlim(-3, 10)
plt.ylim(0, 0.5)
plot_separate_kernels(gaussian, points, a = 1);


### Step 2: Normalize kernels so that total area is 1¶

In [26]:
plt.xlim(-3, 10)
plt.ylim(0, 0.5)
plot_separate_kernels(gaussian, points, a = 1, norm = True);


### Step 3: Sum all kernels together¶

In [27]:
plt.xlim(-3, 10)
plt.ylim(0, 0.5)
plot_kde(gaussian, points, a = 1)


This looks identical to the smooth curve that sns.distplot gives us (when we set the appropriate parameter):

In [28]:
plt.xlim(-3, 10)
plt.ylim(0, 0.5)
sns.distplot(points, kde_kws={'bw': 1});

/opt/anaconda3/lib/python3.7/site-packages/seaborn/distributions.py:2551: FutureWarning: distplot is a deprecated function and will be removed in a future version. Please adapt your code to use either displot (a figure-level function with similar flexibility) or histplot (an axes-level function for histograms).
warnings.warn(msg, FutureWarning)
/opt/anaconda3/lib/python3.7/site-packages/seaborn/distributions.py:1659: FutureWarning: The bw parameter is deprecated in favor of bw_method and bw_adjust. Using 1 for bw_method, but please see the docs for the new parameters and update your code.
warnings.warn(msg, FutureWarning)

In [29]:
sns.kdeplot(points)
sns.histplot(points, stat='density');

In [30]:
sns.kdeplot(points, bw_adjust=2)
sns.histplot(points, stat='density');


## Kernels¶

Gaussian

$$K_{\alpha}(x, x_i) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{2 \pi \alpha^2}} e^{-\frac{(x - x_i)^2}{2\alpha^2}}$$

Boxcar

$$K_{\alpha}(x, x_i) = \begin {cases} \frac{1}{\alpha}, \: \: \: |x - x_i| \leq \frac{\alpha}{2}\\ 0, \: \: \: \text{else} \end{cases}$$
In [31]:
plt.xlim(-3, 10)
plt.ylim(0, 0.5)
plt.title(r'KDE of toy data with Gaussian kernel and $\alpha$ = 1')
plot_kde(gaussian, points, a = 1)

In [32]:
plt.xlim(-3, 10)
plt.ylim(0, 0.5)
plt.title(r'KDE of toy data with Boxcar kernel and $\alpha$ = 1')
plot_kde(boxcar, points, a = 1)


## Effect of bandwidth hyperparameter $\alpha$¶

Let's bring in some (different) toy data.

In [33]:
tips = sns.load_dataset('tips')

In [34]:
tips.head()

Out[34]:
total_bill tip sex smoker day time size
0 16.99 1.01 Female No Sun Dinner 2
1 10.34 1.66 Male No Sun Dinner 3
2 21.01 3.50 Male No Sun Dinner 3
3 23.68 3.31 Male No Sun Dinner 2
4 24.59 3.61 Female No Sun Dinner 4
In [35]:
vals = tips['total_bill']

In [36]:
ax = sns.histplot(vals)
sns.rugplot(vals, color='orange', ax=ax);

In [37]:
plt.figure(figsize=(8, 5))
plt.ylim(0, 0.15)
plt.title(r'KDE of tips with Gaussian kernel and $\alpha$ = 0.1')
plot_kde(gaussian, vals, a = 0.1)

In [38]:
plt.ylim(0, 0.1)
plt.title(r'KDE of tips with Gaussian kernel and $\alpha$ = 1')
plot_kde(gaussian, vals, a = 1)

In [39]:
plt.ylim(0, 0.1)
plt.title(r'KDE of tips with Gaussian kernel and $\alpha$ = 2')
plot_kde(gaussian, vals, a = 2)

In [40]:
plt.ylim(0, 0.1)
plt.title(r'KDE of tips with Gaussian kernel and $\alpha$ = 10')
plot_kde(gaussian, vals, a = 5)


### KDE Formula¶

$$f_{\alpha}(x) = \sum_{i = 1}^n \frac{1}{n} \cdot K_{\alpha}(x, x_i) = \frac{1}{n} \sum_{i = 1}^n K_{\alpha}(x, x_i)$$

## CO2 Emissions¶

In [41]:
co2 = pd.read_csv("CAITcountryCO2.csv", skiprows = 2,
names = ["Country", "Year", "CO2"])
co2.tail()

Out[41]:
Country Year CO2
30639 Vietnam 2012 173.0497
30640 World 2012 33843.0497
30641 Yemen 2012 20.5386
30642 Zambia 2012 2.7600
30643 Zimbabwe 2012 9.9800
In [42]:
last_year = co2.Year.iloc[-1]
last_year

Out[42]:
2012
In [43]:
q = f"Country != 'World' and Country != 'European Union (15)' and Year == {last_year}"
top14_lasty = co2.query(q).sort_values('CO2', ascending=False).iloc[:14]
top14_lasty

Out[43]:
Country Year CO2
30490 China 2012 9312.5329
30634 United States 2012 5122.9094
30514 European Union (28) 2012 3610.5137
30533 India 2012 2075.1808
30596 Russian Federation 2012 1721.5376
30541 Japan 2012 1249.2135
30521 Germany 2012 773.9585
30547 Korea, Rep. (South) 2012 617.2418
30535 Iran 2012 593.8195
30485 Canada 2012 543.0242
30603 Saudi Arabia 2012 480.2278
30478 Brazil 2012 477.7701
30633 United Kingdom 2012 463.4556
30567 Mexico 2012 460.4782
In [44]:
top14 = co2[co2.Country.isin(top14_lasty.Country) & (co2.Year >= 1950)]
print(len(top14.Country.unique()))

14

Out[44]:
Country Year CO2
18822 Brazil 1950 19.6574
18829 Canada 1950 154.1408
18834 China 1950 78.6478
18858 European Union (28) 1950 1773.6864
18865 Germany 1950 510.7323
In [45]:
from cycler import cycler

linestyles = ['-', '--', ':', '-.' ]
colors = plt.cm.Dark2.colors
lines_c = cycler('linestyle', linestyles)
color_c = cycler('color', colors)

fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(8, 8))
ax.set_prop_cycle(color_c * lines_c)

x, y ='Year', 'CO2'
for name, df in top14.groupby('Country'):
ax.semilogy(df[x], df[y], label=name)

ax.set_xlabel(x)
ax.set_ylabel(f"{y} Emissions (million tons)")
ax.legend(ncol=2, frameon=True, fontsize=11);


## Functional relations¶

In [46]:
x = np.linspace(-3, 3)
fig, ((ax1, ax2), (ax3, ax4)) = plt.subplots(2, 2, figsize=(8,8))

# x
ax1.plot(x, x)
ax1.set_title('$y=x$')

# powers
ax2.plot(x, x**2, label='$x^2$')
ax2.plot(x, x**3, label='$x^3$')
ax2.legend()
ax2.set_title('$y=x^2$, $y=x^3$')

# log
xpos = x[x>0]  # Log is only defined for positive x
ax3.plot(xpos, np.log(xpos))
ax3.set_title(r'$y=\log(x)$')

# exp
ax4.plot(x, np.exp(x))
ax4.set_title('$y=e^x$');
plt.tight_layout();